Recovering a benthic instrument in the Arctic Chemical oceanography encompasses the study of the chemical components of the oceans, their reactions, and their pathways of transformation. We study both organic and inorganic compounds, particulate and dissolved material, and the ocean sediments. The pathways that compounds follow affect the global cycling of elements such as carbon and nitrogen, and are often intimately related to biological activity. We undertake our research in environments such as cold seeps and saline lakes, salt marshes, and deep ocean sediments. We combine field observations, laboratory experiments, and computer models to understand factors affecting chemical compositions and how they vary in time and space.

Chemical Oceanography Personnel

Chemical Oceanography Labs

Publications under Chemical Oceanography

Stubbins A.  2016.  A carbon for every nitrogen. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 113(39):10736-10738.
Ward ND, Keil RG, Medeiros PM, Brito DC, Cunha AC, Dittmar T, Yager PL, Krusche AV, Richey JE.  2013.  Degradation of terrestrially derived macromolecules in the Amazon River. Nature Geoscience. 6(7):530-533.
Bittar TB, Berger SA, Birsa LM, Walters TL, Thompson ME, Spencer RGM, Mann EL, Stubbins A, Frischer ME, Brandes JA.  2016.  Seasonal dynamics of dissolved, particulate and microbial components of a tidal saltmarsh-dominated estuary under contrasting levels of freshwater discharge. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 182:72-85.
Baer SE, Connelly TL, Sipler RE, Yager PL, Bronk DA.  2014.  Effect of temperature on rates of ammonium uptake and nitrification in the western coastal Arctic during winter, spring, and summer. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. :n/a-n/a.
Coles VJ, Brooks MT, Hopkins J, Stukel MR, Yager PL, Hood RR.  2013.  The pathways and properties of the Amazon River Plume in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans. 118(12):6894-6913.
Simoneit BRT, Oros DR, Medeiros PM.  2014.  Organic matter provenance and paleoenvironment in the Cretaceous on the Manihiki Plateau, South Pacific. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 409:48-56.
Helms JR, Stubbins A, E. Perdue M, Green NW, Chen H, Mopper K.  2013.  Photochemical bleaching of oceanic dissolved organic matter and its effect on absorption spectral slope and fluorescence. Marine Chemistry. 155:81-91.
Yager P, Sherrell R, Stammerjohn S, Alderkamp A-C, Schofield O, Abrahamsen P, Arrigo K, Bertilsson S, Garay L, Guerrero R et al..  2012.  ASPIRE: The Amundsen Sea Polynya International Research Expedition. Oceanography. 25(3):40-53.
Yeung LY, Berelson WM, Young ED, Prokopenko MG, Rollins N, Coles VJ, Montoya JP, Carpenter EJ, Steinberg DK, Foster RA et al..  2012.  Impact of diatom-diazotroph associations on carbon export in the Amazon River plume. Geophysical Research Letters. 39(18):n/a-n/a.
Chen H, Stubbins A, E. Perdue M, Green NW, Helms JR, Mopper K, Hatcher PG.  2014.  Ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometric differentiation of dissolved organic matter isolated by coupled reverse osmosis-electrodialysis from various major oceanic water masses. Marine Chemistry. 164:48-59.
Sikes EL, Medeiros PM, Augustinus P, Wilmshurst JM, Freeman KR.  2013.  Seasonal variations in aridity and temperature characterize changing climate during the last deglaciation in New Zealand. Quaternary Science Reviews. 74:245-256.
Buesseler K.O., Benitez-Nelson C.R., Moran S.B., Burd A., Charette M., Cochran J.K., Coppola L., Fisher N.S., Fowler S.W., Gardner W.D. et al..  2006.  An assessment of particulate organic carbon to thorium-234 ratios in the ocean and their impact on the application of 234Th as a POC flux proxy. Marine Chemistry. 100(3-4):213-233.
Helms JR, Mao J, Stubbins A, Schmidt-Rohr K, Spencer RGM, Hernes PJ, Mopper K.  2014.  Loss of optical and molecular indicators of terrigenous dissolved organic matter during long-term photobleaching. Aquatic Sciences. 76(3):353-373.
Kitidis V, Stubbins AP, Uher ünther, Goddard RCUpstill, Law CS, E. Woodward MS.  2006.  Variability of chromophoric organic matter in surface waters of the Atlantic Ocean. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography. 53(14-16):1666-1684.
Stubbins A, Uher ünther, Law CS, Mopper K, Robinson C, Upstill-Goddard RC.  2006.  Open-ocean carbon monoxide photoproduction. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography. 53(14-16):1695-1705.
Stubbins A, Uher ünther, Kitidis V, Law CS, Upstill-Goddard RC, E. Woodward MS.  2006.  The open-ocean source of atmospheric carbon monoxide. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography. 53(14-16):1685-1694.
Landa M., Cottrell M.T, Kirchman D.L, Kaiser K., Medeiros P.M, Tremblay L., Batailler N., Caparros J., Catala P., Escoubeyrou K. et al..  2014.  Phylogenetic and structural response of heterotrophic bacteria to dissolved organic matter of different chemical composition in a continuous culture study. Environmental Microbiology. 16(6):1668-1681.
Stubbins A, Hubbard V, Uher G, Law CS, Upstill-Goddard RC, Aiken GR, Mopper K.  2008.  Relating Carbon Monoxide Photoproduction to Dissolved Organic Matter Functionality. Environmental Science & Technology. 42(9):3271-3276.
Green NW, E. Perdue M, Aiken GR, Butler KD, Chen H, Dittmar T, Niggemann J, Stubbins A.  2014.  An intercomparison of three methods for the large-scale isolation of oceanic dissolved organic matter. Marine Chemistry. 161:14-19.
Chong L.S., Berelson W.M., McManus J., Hammond D.E., Rollins N.E., Yager P.L..  2014.  Carbon and biogenic silica export influenced by the Amazon River Plume: Patterns of remineralization in deep-sea sediments. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers. 85:124-137.
Stubbins A, Dittmar T.  2012.  Low volume quantification of dissolved organic carbon and dissolved nitrogen. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods. 10:347-352.
Medeiros PM, Sikes EL, Thomas B, Freeman KH.  2012.  Flow discharge influences on input and transport of particulate and sedimentary organic carbon along a small temperate river. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 77:317-334.
Stubbins A., Niggemann J., Dittmar T..  2012.  Photo-lability of deep ocean dissolved black carbon. Biogeosciences. 9(5):1661-1670.
Stubbins A., Law C.S, Uher G., Upstill-Goddard R.C.  2011.  Carbon monoxide apparent quantum yields and photoproduction in the Tyne estuary. Biogeosciences. 8(3):703-713.
Helms JR, Stubbins A, Ritchie JD, Minor EC, Kieber DJ, Mopper K.  2008.  Absorption spectral slopes and slope ratios as indicators of molecular weight, source, and photobleaching of chromophoric dissolved organic matter. Limnology and Oceanography. 53(3):955-969.
Chambers LR, Ingall ED, Saad EM, Longo AF, Takeuchi M, Tang Y, Benitez-Nelson C, Haley ST, Dyhrman ST, Brandes J et al..  2016.  Enhanced Dissolved Organic Matter Recovery from Saltwater Samples with Electrodialysis. Aquatic Geochemistry.
Dittmar T, de Rezende CEduardo, Manecki M, Niggemann J, Ovalle ARamon Coel, Stubbins A, Bernardes MCorrea.  2012.  Continuous flux of dissolved black carbon from a vanished tropical forest biome. Nature Geoscience. 5(9):618-622.
Stubbins A, Lapierre J-F, Berggren M, Prairie Y, Dittmar T, del Giorgio P.  2014.  What’s in an EEM? Molecular signatures associated with dissolved organic fluorescence in boreal Canada Environmental Science & Technology.
Buck CS, Landing WM, Resing JA, Lebon GT.  2006.  Aerosol iron and aluminum solubility in the northwest Pacific Ocean: Results from the 2002 IOC cruise. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems. 7(4):n/a-n/a.
Hawkes JA, Rossel PE, Stubbins A, Butterfield D, Connelly DP, Achterberg EP, Koschinsky A, Chavagnac érie, Hansen CT, Bach W et al..  2015.  Efficient removal of recalcitrant deep-ocean dissolved organic matter during hydrothermal circulation. Nature Geoscience.
Seidel M, Dittmar T, Ward ND, Krusche AV, Richey JE, Yager PL, Medeiros PM.  2016.  Seasonal and spatial variability of dissolved organic matter composition in the lower Amazon River. Biogeochemistry. 131:281-302.
Buck CS, Landing WM, Resing J.  2013.  Pacific Ocean aerosols: Deposition and solubility of iron, aluminum, and other trace elements. Marine Chemistry. 157:117-130.
Fransson A, Chierici M, Yager PL, Smith WO.  2011.  Antarctic sea ice carbon dioxide system and controls. Journal of Geophysical Research. 116(C12)
Gallon C, Ranville MA, Conaway CH, Landing WM, Buck CS, Morton PL, A. Flegal R.  2011.  Asian Industrial Lead Inputs to the North Pacific Evidenced by Lead Concentrations and Isotopic Compositions in Surface Waters and Aerosols. Environmental Science & Technology. 45(23):9874-9882.
Sherrell R.M., Lagerström M.E., Forsch K.O., Stammerjohn S.E., Yager P.L..  2015.  Dynamics of dissolved iron and other bioactive trace metals (Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn) in the Amundsen Sea Polynya, Antarctica. Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene. 3:000071.
Kleindienst S, Seidel M, Ziervogel K, Grim S, Loftis K, Harrison S, Malkin SY, Perkins MJ, Field J, Sogin ML et al..  2015.  Chemical dispersants can suppress the activity of natural oil-degrading microorganisms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112:14900-14905.
Mu L., Stammerjohn S.E, Lowry K.E, Yager P.L.  2014.  Spatial variability of surface pCO2 and air-sea CO2 flux in the Amundsen Sea Polynya, Antarctica. Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene. 2:000036.
Ingall ED, Diaz JM, Longo AF, Oakes M, Finney L, Vogt S, Lai B, Yager PL, Twining BS, Brandes JA.  2013.  Role of biogenic silica in the removal of iron from the Antarctic seas. Nature Communications. 4
Buck CS, Paytan A.  2012.  Evaluation of commonly used filter substrates for the measurement of aerosol trace element solubility. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods. 10:790-806.
Barrett PM, Resing JA, Buck NJ, Buck CS, Landing WM, Measures CI.  2012.  The trace element composition of suspended particulate matter in the upper 1000m of the eastern North Atlantic Ocean: A16N. Marine Chemistry. 142-144:41-53.
Randall-Goodwin E., Meredith M.P, Jenkins A., Yager P.L, Sherrell R.M, Abrahamsen E.P, Guerrero R., Yuan X., Mortlock R.A, Gavahan K. et al..  2015.  Freshwater distributions and water mass structure in the Amundsen Sea Polynya region, Antarctica. Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene. 3:000065.
Helms JR, Mao J, Chen H, E. Perdue M, Green NW, Hatcher PG, Mopper K, Stubbins A.  2015.  Spectroscopic characterization of oceanic dissolved organic matter isolated by reverse osmosis coupled with electrodialysis. Marine Chemistry.
Kujawinski EB, Moran M.A., Stubbins A, Fatland R.  2016.  The Ocean Microbiome: Metabolic Engine of the Marine Carbon Cycle. Microbe Magazine. 11(6):262-267.
Seidel M, Yager PL, Ward ND, Carpenter EJ, Gomes HR, Krusche AV, Richey JE, Dittmar T, Medeiros PM.  2015.  Molecular-level changes of dissolved organic matter along the Amazon River-to-ocean continuum. Marine Chemistry. 177:218-231.
Han Q, Zender CS, J. Moore K, Buck CS, Chen Y, Johansen A, Measures CI.  2012.  Global estimates of mineral dust aerosol iron and aluminum solubility that account for particle size using diffusion-controlled and surface-area-controlled approximations. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 26(2):n/a-n/a.
Buck CS, Landing WM, Resing JA.  2010.  Particle size and aerosol iron solubility: A high-resolution analysis of Atlantic aerosols. Marine Chemistry. 120(1-4):14-24.
Seidel M, Kleindienst S, Dittmar T, Joye SB, Medeiros PM.  2016.  Biodegradation of crude oil and dispersants in deep seawater from the Gulf of Mexico: Insights from ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography. 129:108-118.
Medeiros PM, Seidel M, Niggemann J, Spencer RGM, Hernes PJ, Yager PL, Miller WL, Dittmar T, Hansell DA.  2016.  A novel molecular approach for tracing terrigenous dissolved organic matter into the deep ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 30:689-699.
Ducklow HW, Wilson SE, Post AF, Stammerjohn SE, Erickson M, Lee SH, Lowry KE, Sherrell RM, Yager PL.  2015.  Particle flux on the continental shelf in the Amundsen Sea Polynya and Western Antarctic Peninsula. Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene. 3:000046.
Medeiros PM, Babcock-Adams L, Seidel M, Castelao RM, Di Iorio D, Hollibaugh JT, Dittmar T.  2017.  Export of terrigenous dissolved organic matter in a broad continental shelf. Limnology and Oceanography. In press
Medeiros PM, Seidel M, Ward ND, Carpenter EJ, Gomes HR, Niggemann J, Krusche AV, Richey JE, Yager PL, Dittmar T.  2015.  Fate of the Amazon River dissolved organic matter in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 29:677-690.
Barrett PM, Resing JA, Buck NJ, Feely RA, Bullister JL, Buck CS, Landing WM.  2014.  Calcium carbonate dissolution in the upper 1000 m of the eastern North Atlantic. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. :n/a-n/a.
John DL, Medeiros PM, Babcock-Adams L, Walker SE.  2017.  Cambrian trilobites as archives for anthropocene biomarkers and other chemical compounds. Anthropocene. In press
Medeiros PM, Seidel M, Gifford SM, Ballantyne F, Dittmar T, Whitman WB, Moran MAnn.  2017.  Microbially-mediated transformations of estuarine dissolved organic matter. Frontiers in Marine Science. 4:69. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2017.00069
Grand MM, Buck CS, Landing WM, Measures CI, Hatta M, Hiscock WT, Brown MT, Resing JA.  2014.  Quantifying the impact of atmospheric deposition on the biogeochemistry of Fe and Al in the upper ocean: A decade of collaboration with the US CLIVAR-CO2 Repeat Hydrography Program. Oceanography. 27(1):62-65.
Ranville MA, Cutter GA, Buck CS, Landing WM, Cutter LS, Resing JA, A. Flegal R.  2010.  Aeolian Contamination of Se and Ag in the North Pacific from Asian Fossil Fuel Combustion. Environmental Science & Technology. 44(5):1587-1593.
Ward ND, Bianchi TS, Medeiros PM, Seidel M, Richey JE, Keil RG, Sawakuchi HO.  2017.  Where carbon goes when water flows: Carbon cycling across the aquatic continuum. Frontiers in Marine Science (Review article). 4:7. doi:10.3389/fmars.2017.00007
Moran MAnn, Kujawinski EB, Stubbins A, Fatland R, Aluwihare LI, Buchan A, Crump BC, Dorrestein PC, Dyhrman ST, Hess NJ et al..  2016.  Deciphering ocean carbon in a changing world. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 113(12):3143-3151.
Moran M.A, Kujawinski EB, Stubbins A, Fatland R, Aluwihare LI, Buchan A, Crump BC, Dorrestein PC, Dyhrman ST, Hess NJ et al..  2016.  Deciphering ocean carbon in a changing world. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 113(12):3143-3151.
Morton PL, Landing WM, Hsu S-C, Milne A, Aguilar-Islas AM, Baker AR, Bowie AR, Buck CS, Gao Y, Gichuki S.  2013.  Methods for the sampling and analysis of marine aerosols: results from the 2008 GEOTRACES aerosol intercalibration experiment. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods. 11:62-78.
Cawley KM, Murray AE, Doran PT, Kenig F, Stubbins A, Chen H, Hatcher PG, McKnight DM.  2016.  Characterization of dissolved organic material in the interstitial brine of Lake Vida, Antarctica. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta.
Logvinova CL, Frey KE, Mann PJ, Stubbins A, Spencer RGM.  2015.  Assessing the potential impacts of declining arctic sea ice cover on the photochemical degradation of dissolved organic matter in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences. :n/a-n/a.
Medeiros PM, Seidel M, Ward ND, Carpenter EJ, Gomes HR, Niggemann J, Krusche AV, Richey JE, Yager PL, Dittmar T.  2015.  Fate of the Amazon River dissolved organic matter in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 29(5):677-690.
Medeiros PM, Seidel M, Powers LC, Dittmar T, Hansell DA, Miller WL.  2015.  Dissolved organic matter composition and photochemical transformations in the northern North Pacific Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters. 42:863-870.
Repeta DJ, Aluwihare L, Carlson C, Liu Z, Nelson C, Stubbins A.  2015.  Introduction to the special issue on the Biogeochemistry of Dissolved Organic Matter. Marine Chemistry. 177:203-204.
Seidel M, Yager PL, Ward ND, Carpenter EJ, Gomes HR, Krusche AV, Richey JE, Dittmar T, Medeiros PM.  2015.  Molecular-level changes of dissolved organic matter along the Amazon River-to-ocean continuum. Marine Chemistry.
Rossel PE, Stubbins A, Hach PF, Dittmar T.  2015.  Bioavailability and molecular composition of dissolved organic matter from a diffuse hydrothermal system. Marine Chemistry.
Measures CI, Landing WM, Brown MT, Buck CS.  2008.  A commercially available rosette system for trace metal-clean sampling. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods. 6
Joye SB, Leifer I, MacDonald IR, Chanton JP, Meile CD, Teske AP, Kostka JE, Chistoserdova L, Coffin R, Hollander D et al..  2011.  Comment on “A Persistent Oxygen Anomaly Reveals the Fate of Spilled Methane in the Deep Gulf of Mexico”. Science. 332:1033.
Nehrke G, Reichart G-J, Van Cappellen P, Meile C, Bijma J.  2007.  Dependence of calcite growth rate and Sr partitioning on solution stoichiometry: non-Kossel crystal growth. Geochimica et cosmochimica acta. 71:2240–2249.
Chen H, Stubbins A, Hatcher PG.  2011.  A mini-electrodialysis system for desalting small volume samples for Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods. (9):582-592.
Osburn CL, Stedmon CA, Spencer RGM, Stubbins A.  2013.  Emerging Issues Workshop Report: Linking optical and chemical properties of dissolved organic matter in natural waters. Limnology and Oceanography Bulletin. (22):78-82.
Spencer RGM, Gaillardet J, Stubbins A.  2013.  Geochemistry of the Congo River, Estuary and Plume. Biogeochemical Dynamics at Major River-Coastal Interfaces: Linkages with Global Change. :554-583.
Dittmar T., Stubbins A.  2014.  Dissolved Organic Matter in Aquatic Systems. Treatise on geochemistry, ed. H. D. Holland, and K. K. Turekian, 25-156. Oxford: Elsevier. :125-156.
Mopper K, Kieber DJ, Stubbins A.  2015.  Marine Photochemistry of Organic Matter: Processes and Impacts. Biogeochemistry of Dissolved Organic Matter.
Dittmar T., Stubbins A..  2014.  Dissolved Organic Matter in Aquatic Systems. Treatise on Geochemistry.